"Ulysses" by James Joyce

Publicada originalmente en entregas, rechazada por infinidad de editores, prohibida por obscena y considerada una novela poco menos que inaccesible, son muchos los factores que rodean esta obra cumbre de la literatura universal. Aun así, es en su estilo y estructura donde cabe hallar la clave de su genialidad.

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Daniel Francis

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Sarah Davison

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Set in Dublin over the course of one day, 16 June 1904, Ulysses echoes the events of Homer’s epic The Odyssey. We follow three main characters: Leopold Bloom, a Jewish advertising salesman; his wife Molly, a singer; and a young teacher called Stephen Dedalus. The day’s events are quite ordinary: the characters each do some errands; Leopold goes to a funeral; Leopold and Stephen visit a woman in the maternity hospital, then they go to the pub and later a brothel; Molly invites her lover home for sex in the afternoon. But it’s the style of this nine-hundred-page novel that makes it so extraordinary. 

homage to homer

Although the story seems, at first, to have no connection with Homer’s epic Greek myth, the elements of The Odyssey do run through the whole book. Joyce structures the narrative into eighteen episodes, each related to an episode of The Odyssey. And there are some parallels between the characters: Leopold Bloom with Odysseus; Molly Bloom with Penelope; and Stephen Dedalus with Telemachus, Odysseus’ son. Ulysses is Latin for Odysseus, the hero of Homer’s epic, and Leopold is a kind of gentle hero too. He argues: 

“Force, hatred, history, all that. That’s not life for men and women, insult and hatred. It’s the very opposite of that that is really life.”

 

“Fuerza, odio, historia, todo eso. Ésa no es vida para hombres y mujeres, insultos y odio. Y todo el mundo sabe que eso es exactamente lo contrario de lo que es la verdadera vida”.

The joy of sex

Ulysses was banned for a while partly because of the ‘obscene’ way Joyce writes about sex. For example, as evening falls, Leopold masturbates while watching a young woman called Gerty MacDowell on the beach; she’s excited by the encounter, too. Later, Molly thinks graphically about sex and is open about her own sexual pleasure. At the end of the book’s final line, which is written as an unpunctuated stream of consciousness, Molly remembers an erotic encounter she had in Gibraltar: 

“[…] first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.”

 

“[...] y primero le rodeé con los brazos sí y le atraje encima de mí para que él me pudiera sentir los pechos todos perfume sí y el corazón le corría como loco y sí dije sí quiero Sí”.

Style sensation

Joyce mixes and parodies many different styles of writing within the novel: Anglo-Saxon epics, the Roman Catholic catechism, newspaper articles and lots more. For example, this description of a man parodies the style of 19th-century Romantic novels: 

“[...] a broadshouldered deepchested stronglimbed frankeyed redhaired freely freckled shaggybearded widemouthed largenosed longheaded deep-voiced barekneed brawnyhanded hairylegged ruddyfaced, sinewyarmed hero. From shoulder to shoulder he  measured several ells and his rocklike mountainous knees were covered, as was likewise the rest of his body wherever visible, with a strong growth of tawny prickly hair in hue and toughness similar to the mountain gorse (Ulex Europeus).”

“[...] un eroe de los hombros largos, tórax robusto, bien plantado, ojos sinceros, pelirrojo, lleno de pecas, barba lanuda,  boca enorme, naríz ancho, rostro largo, voz profunda, rodillas desnudas, manos forzudas, piernas ligeras, cara rubiconda, y brazos fibrosos. De hombro a hombro medìa varios palmos y sus rodillas rocosas como las montañas estaban cubiertas, como todo su cuerpo visible, de una masa de pelos espinosos y punzantes parecidos a la escoba de montaña (Ulex Europeos)." 

Joyce also loved inventing words, often for onomatopoeic effect. Bloom’s cat greets him by saying: “Mkgnao… Mrkgnao!”

Dublin

Joyce said that in Ulysses he wanted “to give a picture of Dublin so complete that if the city one day suddenly disappeared from the earth, it could be reconstructed out of my book.” Throughout the novel he describes many streets and buildings that still exist today and all over the city there are plaques showing where events in Ulysses took place. These sites spread from major streets like O’Connell Street and Grafton Street, to Sweny’s Pharmacy, where Leopold buys lemon soap for Molly, and out to the Martello Tower by the sea, where the book opens.

Ulysses is long and strange, and understandably many people feel that it’s too difficult to read. But it’s the kind of book you don’t have to read from beginning to end. Episode 15, which describes Leopold’s extraordinary fantasies as he wanders around the red-light district of Nighttown, is a popular place to start. Or, you could try an audio adaptation that selects and dramatizes key sections. Ulysses is about the chaotic, epic quality of the everyday and it can be enjoyed without being fully understood.

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